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Blacktown Advocate September 2013






















Black Belt Grading Success


1st Dan- Pasquale Falsetta and Gerald Corriente                            Bo Dan- Yash Shitole

December Taekwondo Grading- Grand Master Sung Soo Lee centre







Our recent Ladies 6 Week Self Defence Course concluded last night. Here's some feedback from the group;


Alison-Very good instruction. Great to get back to basics. Good to learn to run away after using the techniques. Good info booklet.

Stefanie- Overall I found the self defence class very knowledgeable which taught me the basics of self defence. I also enjoyed the group discussions which I found help me be more aware of serious situations.

Resham- The classes have been great. They were fun and informative. I no longer feel like a damsel in distress. I know if the time comes I am prepared to look after myself.

Sarah- Awesome class. I have learnt a lot of techniques that are easy to remember and work effectively. I like that our instructor has a background in Hapkido and lots of knowledge in self defence.

Janice- Fun class. Informative. Excellent price. I enjoyed it and I think that everyone else did as well. I won't remember it all but will definaltely remember some of it in the future.

Taylor- I loved the classes :) Will definitely be using them more often.

Leanne- Good basic knowledge on self defence.






Grading 17/12/10




Grading 15/12/10









Grading Night 24/09/10





NSW Taekwondo Tournament 22/08/10

Club Results


Donn Avila- Gold medal; Tile Breaking, Silver medal; Full Contact Sparring



Matthew Gobbo- Silver medal; Black Heavyweight Full Contact Sparring



Yash Shitloe- Silver medal; Red Contact, Bronze medal; Red Non Contact Sparring



Stephen Sands- Silver medal; Red Contact and Non Contact Sparring, Bronze medal; Individual Pattern

Jarred O'Brien- Gold medal; Yellow Non Contact, Silver medal; Yellow Contact Sparring


Sarah Brown- Silver medal; Yellow Contact Sparring


Michelle Brown- Gold medal; Yellow Non Contact and Silver medal; Yellow Contact Sparring


Lachlan Phillips- Silver medal; Yellow Non Contact Sparring


Other Results-

Domenic Di Santi- Gold medal; Blue non contact sparring.
John Wensor- Silver medal; Blue non contact sparring.
Andrew Di Santi- Silver medal; Blue non contact sparring.
Joe Di Santi- Silver medal;- board breaking, Silver medal; Blue contact sparring.
Elizabeth Curmi; unsuccessful in 1st round- Red non contact sparring.
Congratulations to every one that represented our club!!







On Wednesday 3rd March 2010, the new full time AJS Self Defence Centre was opened. Classes from Blacktown TKD and Vardys rd TKD transferred across. A new Hapkido classes was also established with Ermington Hapkido and Taekwondo staying put where they are.

The Centre is currently operating on Mondays, Wednesdays and Friday nights with plenty of room to grow. With $3 000.00 worth of signage recently installed at the front of the building facing Sunnyholt rd Blacktown, there are 30 000 to 40 000 cars per week driving past.





o     HKD 4th Dan





2008 Taekwondo Championships

Sunday 17/05/09

Kellyville Sports and Recreation Centre

60 Memorial Ave Kellyville




To 17 Clifton Plc Cherrybrook 2126


1st and 2nd medals in all categories greater than 2 entrants



Cheque made out to NSW Taekwondo Association




1/ No Contact Free Sparring

2/ Full Contact Free Sparring

3/ Individual Belt Poomsae

4/ Team Poomsae        

5/ Hosinsool (self defence) – individual with partner

6/ Team Hosinsool (Self defence) – more than two players

7/ Weapon demonstration- individual

8/ Team Weapon demonstration- more than two players

9/ Continuous Speed Creative Board Breaking

10/ Tile Breaking




Click this button to view the power point presentation on electrical cars. Very interesting. I have sent this link to Hon Peter Garrett and the Daily Telegraph. Once inside, click DOWN ARROW on the right hand side of your screen. When finished, click the BACK ARROW on the top left of your screen.

Electric Cars 





Master Sands examined  by Grand Master Sung Soo Lee for 6th dan Hapkido Grading in Fan Technique

Master Sands, "Fan" technique

Page last updated on 28/10/08

It's official!! Master Andrew Sands has just received his 6th dan certificate from the Korea Hapkido Federation. Andrew is now the highest ranked Australian born Hapkido Master registered with the Korea Hapkido Federation!!


* World ISKA Championships 2008, Homebush, NSW, Australia. Competition details....

* We were back at ISKA again today (19/10/08) were Stephan and Joshua competed in sparring. 

We just made it to the court on time for Stephen as they decided to change him to a different category of the "point sparring division" to the one that we submitted without letting us know. His name was called with a final count down from 10 when he was starting to put his protectors on. Stephen started well scoring the first point, but lost to the more experienced player.

Joshua was more than ready to go. We waited through the previous division, only for the judges to take a lunch break before starting. Once we got going, Josh was also the first to score. But again his competitor had a fair bit of experience and eventually won the division. There were quite a few high punches landing; the the point where the referee stopped the bout and warned all competitors about high punches. Joshua definitely gave this new champion the hardest run of the division.

Well done to both boys on their first attempt at the ISKA championships!!

To see Stephen in Point Sparring CLICK HERE

To see Joshua in Continuous Sparring CLICK HERE


Today (18/10/08) we and three competitors competing in the "Sumo" division for the first time. All three tried their best and have learnt from their experience today. We will be better prepared for next time.

Master Sands with Elizabeth Curmi, and sons Joshua and Stephen.

See Stephen in action, CLICK HERE

See Elizabeth in SUMO at the ISKA World Cup CLICK HERE


* To read Master Sands' recent Hapkido thesis, CLICK HERE

* The next Ladies Self Defence Course is booked for 24/10/08 at Blue Chequers Hall Blacktown. Go to CONTACT US for bookings.

* The ISKA World Championships are being held on 17, 18 and 19/10/08. Thus far Elizabeth Curmi, Joshua Sands and Stephen Sands will be competing.

* There has been a new martial arts organization formed called the Australasian Martial Arts Federation. This incorporates the Australian Hapkido Federation Inc; and the NSW or Australian Taekwondo Association. The website is All the results from the recent TKD tournament are listed there.


* The NSW Taekwondo Association Championship were held at Kellyville Recreation Centre, Memorial Drive Parklea on 31/08/08. AJS Self defence had 5 entries. We came away with one gold and two silver.

Master Sands congratulates Donn Avila on winning Silver in Poomse and Gold in the black belt sparring division.

* The Australian Hapkido Federation Inc' held its tournament on 8/06/08 with the seminar held on Saturday 7/08/08. We were represented by Alessa and Errien Teunisse, Kate Gayewska and Mark Heffernan; good work team!! The seminar contained lessons in Arnis stick fighting by Elias Baera and the Grand Master Sung Soo Lee taught some laying techniques.

* -The AJS 6 WEEK LADIES SELF DEFENCE COURSE has been booked at Sydney Olympic Park for 18/08/07. Go to Ladies Self Defence for details on this exciting, fun course!!!

* The AJS General Self Defence Course has been booked for August at the "Mean Fiddler Hotel" at Rouse Hill on Tuesday nights. Go to  Ladies Self Defence to book your place NOW! There is a maximum of 22 per class and bookings have already started- be quick or you could miss out!!!

* AJS Self Defence has also confirmed booking s for a new Taekwondo class at Vardys Road Public School on Wednesday nights commencing August. As an introductory offer, the first 10 NEW students will be entitled to a new uniform FREE!

Students from Blacktown, Hassall Grove and Dundas are offered extra training at only $20.00 per month extra; what better value can you get????

We are also contemplating running the 6 Week Ladies Self Defence Course at the school. To register your interest, go to Ladies Self Defence


* 16/02/07- Kevin Laing, former world heavyweight ISKA champion will be going the USA to represent Australian in June 07. Good Luck Kevin!!

* 15/02/07- Taekwondo is coming to Vardys Road Primary School (Kings Langley NSW) in the coming weeks. The first 10 students will receive a FREE UNIFORM on joining. Call 96222008 NOW!


* Grand Master Sung Soo Lee; On 30/12/06 I visited Mr Lee to pass on his present from the majority of the Hapkido and Taekwondo classes from around Australia and England. The DVD containing the birthday wishes from the instructors/ classes was very well received and appreciated by Mr Lee. Again, I would like to thank all that contributed towards Mr Lees' 70th birthday gift.


* The Burnside class has transferred to Telopea to due the hall having some major construction improvements. It is due to re- open in March 2007. UPDATE 17/02/07- Tony Laing, former instructor at Burnside Primanry School has decided to have a break from teaching for a while. Therefore the class will remain at Dundas for the time being.

Congratulations goes to Mark McKane of TKL Hapkido at Blacktown who has just Graded to 1st dan Black belt with the Korea Hapkido Moohakkwan. Sadly, Mark has decided to hang up his mouth guard and retire from full contact tournaments. The former ISKA Australian Champion in the veterans division said that the minor injuries that come with the full contact games are taking longer and longer to get over. Well done Mark on your full contact record of success.

Of course not all participants with AJS Self Defence are interested in full contact tournaments. This is why the Australian Hapkido Federation Inc' commits to the Bi Annual Demonstration tournaments.

Also we expect the Australian Taekwondo Jidokwan Association will be releasing a date for a poomse and demonstration event. Stay tuned


Annual Tournament for 2006

Due to the trip to Korea this year, the 2006 Tournament has been postponed to 2007

The Australian Hapkido Federation Inc' would like to thank all those who were ready to attend this year event and look forward to next years event as the best yet!!

The Australian Hapkido Federation Inc' is planning their annual Seminar and Tournament at:

Smithfield YMCA

Leisure Park Drive, Smithfield (Cairns)

11/06/06, Starts 9am

Includes; Hapkido Free Sparring, Multiple Free Sparring, Syllabus Performance, Weapon Performance and Grand Demonstrations. This is normally a closed tournament available to Australian Hapkido Federation Inc' members ONLY. However this year to tournament is open to all martial arts. There is also a Hapkido Seminar on Saturday 10/06/06 which will include breathing techniques and internal power (Andrew Sands), multiple attacker techniques (John Gill), then ground defence techniques (Brad Hope).

For further details go to:



Melbourne Championship on  23rd of October 2005.


1) Grand Demonstration

1st:       Eumyang HKD Team (Brisbane)

2nd:      J.C. Martial Arts (Melbourne)

3rd:       Maribyrnong HKD Moohakkwan (Melbourne)


2) Weaponry Arts

1st:         Eumyang

2nd:         Facundo Dalafox

3rd:       Brad Hope and  Ken Bisset

Encouragement Prize: Elias Zraicat (Melbourne) and Joshua Sands (Sydney)


3) Syllabus Demonstration

1st:        Darren Bofinger, Jareth Bofinger (Brisbane)

2nd:       Daniel Roberts, Alex Rozario (Brisbane)


4) Free Sparring

1st Darren and Jareth Bofinger

Judging Panel; Master Jo Ho Guahk (6th dan), Grand Master Sung Soo Lee (9th dan) and

Master Andrew Sands (5th dan)

Joshua Sands with Master Jin Ho Guahk after receiving his Encouragement Award for his Long Stick performance.



On 23/10/05 Kevin Laing became Black Belt Heavy World Champion. Kevin has held the Australian title for 2 years after beating all challengers through this time. Although the championship is open to all styles, none could match Kevin's Hapkido skills, especially his evasive and sometimes brutal defenses and his devastating kicking techniques. Well done Kevin!!

Also, Mark McKane also took out the veterans division. Mark has been training with both Kevin Laing and Andrew Sands for the last 2 years. Again, well done Mark!
























Hapkido Thesis 2008

By Andrew Sands




What is Hapkido


Benefits of Hapkido


Australian Hapkido History and Evolution


Hapkido Teaching Methods


Hapkido Evaluation Methods



1)    What is Hapkido.

This Korean Martial Art of Self Defence evolved over thousands of years. It originated through the introduction of Buddhism in Korea in 3 A.D and was developed generation to generation by Royal families of Korea and Japan as their secret self defence. Hapkido means; HAP- circular harmony, KI- power or action, DO- way, execute; therefore- Circular Power Way.

It uses circular motion not to aggressively attack; rather to flow with the opponent; and to lead them to the advantage point where Hapkido joint twists, hitting, kicking and throwing take control of the opponent’s actions toward submission or smashing techniques.



HITTING- Hapkido uses; punching, hand strikes, back fist, hammer fist, finger striking on pressure points, fore arm strikes, elbows, knees and whole body striking.

KICKING- Hapkido uses; front, turning, side, crescent and axe kicks as basics (these kicks are also used as spinning reverse, on the spot jump kicks as well as running jump kicks). We also use; hook kick, whip kick, lower cross/ lower outer, low circular, low spinning reverse turning, low heel kick, foot stomping, knife foot thrust kick, scissor kicking (front / sides). Also the combination of speed kicks which is basically called flying kicking (commonly seen in International Taekwondo Tournaments). In all there are 50 basic types of kicks which vary in height and style of execution. For example, turning kick can be to head, body, thigh, knee or calf; could be front foot or back foot using stationary stance, sliding, walking forward or backward, on the spot jumping, running and jumping, or in a double kicking action).

JOINT TWISTING- Hapkido main syllabus is the application of manipulating the attackers joints and pressure points to overpower them to a state of submission. There are literally thousands of combinations of these techniques which are all simply dependant on the strength of the aggressor; the stronger the attack, the more it will hurt them. All techniques revolve around the centre of gravity and the circular motion applied. It also relies on the + (plus) & - (minus) principle; that is, if the attack is strong, you will use a soft approach to over come them; if the attack is weak, you may use a strong approach. Regardless, the joint and pressure point techniques are extremely effective and very painful.

THROWING- Many of the throwing techniques are also found in such Arts as Ju-Jitsu, Aikido and Judo. Hapkido joint techniques can easily be transformed into a throwing technique by the simple re- direction of the technique to manipulate the centre of gravity. Again there are many different throwing techniques.

FIXING- This is the finalisation of the above techniques; the submission holds. The first step to self defence is to avoid (punch, kick, grab, etc), the second step is to counter attack (hit, kick, attack pressure point, joint lock or throw). The final step is to secure the attacker in a submission hold to ensure your safety. At this point it may be possible adjust the lock to a Police lock to walk the opponent to another location (eg, outside, to the Police) or to knock out the opponent (in the case where there is more than one opponent). Again, the FIXING techniques are very effective and painful, if not dangerous to resist against

WEAPONRY- Hapkido uses; short stick, long stick, walking cane, nunchaku and double nunchaku, towel, belt, fan, against knife, against kendo. No metal weapons are used.  Weapons are taught at the Black Belt level, however are sometimes used as a class exercise.  





“Mind like Water” is a theory used in Hapkido; it understands that water of a flowing river does not penetrate the rocks that are in a river, rather to flow around the rocks to achieve its goal. Therefore, part of the way of Hapkido is to flow like water to achieve its goal.

Another theory is “Mind like Moon.” This is the acknowledgment of the power of “Ki”, a spiritual source of energy within every one and every thing. Once fully understood, you find the ability of knowing what attack will be used by an opponent before they begin (example- attack from behind).


2)    Benefits of Hapkido


All martial arts are derived from the same basic formula. That is to use physical movements based on energies realised through life. The most common of these are animal behaviours and movements. It is common to find patterns or poomse (kata) which are used to display the individual’s ability in terms of physical and mental strength, balance, artistic movement, concentration, accuracy, flexibility and memory. These traits are all similar to animal movements and instinct.

However, each martial art is different. Each martial artist commonly believes that his/ her martial art is the best. But actually, each martial art actually suits the person rather than be correctly judged against another martial art.

Karate and Taekwondo are really quite similar. They aggressively use their range of movements to collect points in competition, or submission in terms of self defence. But generally the larger, stronger individual will prevail over a smaller person.

Kung Fu uses a combination of aggressive strikes with a range of pattern like performances. The size of its opponent is less critical. Kung Fu also favours the use of weapon arts.

Judo uses the throwing, locking and very basis kicking. However in general terms, the larger person will have the advantage.

Kick Boxing uses the combination punching, knee kicks, elbow strikes and general kicking to register points in competition. At a street level it has the ability to be useful in self defence. However this sport will almost guarantee injury to its students.

Brazilian Jujitsu uses grappling and pressure points with ground wrestling. It is also quite violent and injuries are commonplace. It is very effective in creating submission holds once on the ground. It is also an effective street defence but it must be understood that ground fighting on concrete will risk self injury.

Aikido is uses pressure points and joint locking quite effectively. Its general focus has traditionally been avoiding the movements of frontal attack from sword, thus it uses avoiding techniques which are then combined with its locking skills. It is not a competitive style but quite effective at a street level. It also enjoys the use of weapon arts.

Kendo relies heavily on sword techniques. It can be quite competitive but some what ineffective at a street level.

Mixed martial arts are exactly that, mixed. These types of groups use the best of what they see or know to combine the techniques to suits themselves. This can be very street effective, but lacks any formal structure and can be falsely taught by people without any credentials.

Hapkido enjoys the benefits of aspects all of these styles. Hand, knee, elbow and whole body strikes, a greater range of kicking techniques (low, high, spinning), grappling, joint and locking techniques, throwing and break falling, ground defences and weapon arts. It can be aggressive or passive depending on the situation, but most intriguing is the “balance” it creates with an opponent and efficiency in its movements. It has a training agenda for fitness and flexibility along with a set syllabus that is updated. The weapon arts are also practised which creates a better understanding of the basic movements and artistic practices. All aspects of Hapkido are very street effective. The techniques can also be utilised for competition from full contact sparring to demonstration. Another important aspect is its safe to practice with little risk of injury. Although its modern name is quite young, it has evolved over many centuries. Thus it is internationally known with a central body of the Korean Hapkido Federation located in Seoul.

In summary, all martial arts are suitable for individuals. Hapkido has aspects of all of these arts producing a system of training that benefits anyone that practises it. Size is irrelevant to the effectiveness of the techniques.



3) Australian Hapkido History and Evolution


In 1974, 6th dan Master Sung Soo Lee emigrated to Australia after spending 2 years coaching the National Singapore Taekwondo as directed by Korea Taekwondo. Master Lee was 6th dan in both Taekwondo and Hapkido.

The first class to open in Australia was in Burwood, Sydney at the Police Citizens Club. The school name of Moohakkwan was adopted.

The first Hapkido Moohakkwan tournament was held at Marrickville Council Hall on in 1977. A tournament was held each year.

1984 was the formation of the unincorporated Australian Hapkido Federation.

1985- 1 X 7th dan, 2 X 3rd dan, 4 X 2nd dan, 11 X 1st dan black belts registered.

1991- The Australian Hapkido Federation (AHF) revised its committee members to be; Sung Soo Lee (President), Peter Georgiou (Executive), Jeff Nguyen (Secretary), Dennis Glover (Tournament Director), Geoff Scully (Treasurer), Andrew Sands (Facility), John Fielder Gill (Public Relations) and Margret Nguyen (Assistant Secretary).

Other than the committee members, other instructors included Dale Eagling, Lachlan McMasters, Michael Leech, Paul Lodge, Andrew Crotty, Paul Walker, Peter Karakasianis, Nazie Boydoun, Ian Kneen, Scott Rowley, Darko Desic, Paul Shannon and Jim Chapel.

The first Hapkido tournament held under the new committee management was at the State Sports Centre, Homebush on 23/06/91. It included free sparring and demonstration events. The free sparring was loosely based on TKD rules, but also  included kicking to the leg 1/2 way down the shin to include lower cross kicking and low reverse turning kick, and throwing techniques that must have affected within 2 seconds where the referee would suspend the competition, regroup the competitors and continue the bout. The tournament was open to all martial arts. The demonstration title was won by Matt Maloy of the Central Coast.

Next was the Australian Hapkido Federation Interclub Tournament held at Granville South High School on 1/12/91. This gave the organisation an opportunity to improve its skills ready for the next open tournament in 1993. The 2nd Interclub tournament was held at Granville South High School on 29/11/92 where syllabus self defence was introduced and judged by its technical performance and execution.

The next tournament was the All Styles Open Tournament held at the State Sports Centre Homebush on 27/06/93. This was attended by Taekwondo, Kung Fu, Karate, Judo, as well as the Australia Hapkido "Association" (AHA) and a break away Hapkido class called "Street Lethal" who is now known as the Australia Hapkido Group (formally with AHA). Con Prasoulas from the AHA won the demonstration division. However, there were very few free sparring winners other than Hapkidoists.

The 1994 All Styles Open Tournament was held at the State Sports Centre Homebush on 17/07/94. However the tournament was cancelled due to a lack of competitors. It seems that as almost no martial artists other than Hapkido won at the previous years tournament, the other styles were reluctant to compete.

On 29/07/94, the first Queensland instructor was appointed. He was Ma Hyung Joo who emigrated from Korea. He was formally a student of Sung Soo Lee while he was teaching in Seoul.

On 26/08/95, the 1995 Open Titles were held at the State Sports Centre Homebush and sponsored by Westfield Shopping Town Figtree. The majority of free sparring competitors were from AHF however there were two Taekwondo clubs.  The demonstration division was won this time by Bondi Taekwondo.

July 1996- The AHF visited the Korea Hapkido Federation in Seoul. Also trained with the Korea Hapkido Demonstration team.

11/09/97, The Australian Hapkido Federation becomes an Incorporated body under the Department of Fair Trade.

31/08/98, established its first internet website with CitySearch

Dale Eagling passes away. He was chief instructor for the majority of Taekwondo classes in Tasmania and Queensland. As a student of Master Sung Soo Lee, Master Lee to control of these classes for Grading examinations. At the same time he began holding Hapkido seminars. All Taekwondo classes enjoyed the experience and began learning and later teaching Hapkido.



1999- First overseas black belt recognised by AHF.  Registered black belts now;

1 X 9th dan, 1 X 5th dan, 10 X 4th dan, 17 X 3rd dan, 111 X 2nd dan, 224 X 1st dan, 293 X Bo dan

Federation schools;

NSW-12,    Vic- 3,    QLD- 6,    SA- 2,    TAS- 1,    WA-1,    Overseas- 8

2008- 1st Dan :  420, 2nd Dan   179, 3rd Dan   41,    4th Dan   27,

5th Dan    6, 6th Dan    2, 7th Dan    3, 9th Dan    1


Federation schools;

NSW-12,    Vic- 3,    QLD- 6,    SA- 2,    TAS- 1,    WA-1,    Overseas- 8



4) Hapkido Teaching Methods


There are two main areas of focus when effectively teaching Hapkido. They are mental and physical.

The mental teaching is explained on the grading cards for the student’s reference. They are to be; loyal, humane, courteous, cultivate virtue, be trustful and judge correctly. These attributes are not always adhered to as they should be. Some students and instructors lack the vigilance to respond and teach these basic rules as part of the Hapkido way. It is important to continually refer to these guide lines as a matter of best practise throughout the class structure.

So too is the education of “Ki” energy and its importance in day to day life activities. This gives the student a better understanding of the management of stress related life issues. It is a basic understanding of being calm through turmoil and directing people’s best efforts towards life goals that are achievable. It is important that a “true” instructor can become the students “life” coach. This is not a position of advising people what they should do with their lives, but rather to question the student on their beliefs so they make a concerted and correct decision for themselves. It is an opportunity for the instructor to pass on their “opinions” through their life experiences in an effort to assist. The “Ki” energy is also an important part of the students soul as they use this energy for physical and mental “life” uses.

Physically, Hapkido promotes anaerobic and aerobic exercise. The classes are structured using a generic exercise format that is safe and practical. However it is of the greatest importance that the instructor is advised of any individual limitation of any of the students. Safety is a very high consideration on modern martial arts.

Another new aspect of teaching is the instructor accreditation system. This is provided to the Australian Hapkido Federation Inc’ though its membership with the Martial Arts Industry Association. This is a public Company with bi yearly elected delegates of its operation that provide education and a code of conduct to the Australian martial arts industry to strive for “best practise” under its guise. It also provides an information source for all aspects of the martial arts industry such as; risk management, industry promotion and marketing, safe exercise practices and industry support in terms of legal and morale responsibilities of instructors.

Conducting the Hapkido class has evolved since beginning my teaching career in 1987. At that point in time fixing techniques and break falling/ rolling were in their infancy. Without mats, these aspects of Hapkido were quite dangerous to approach. Through Hapkido’s evolution, mats have become a necessary tool for the class progression. While some classes utilise the mats with ease, some still struggle with such logistics with casual venue hiring commitments and have to transport/ store the mats. This has created a distinction of class between those who can; and those who cannot provide mats as this tool. This leads into more gymnastic body control which rewards the individuals’ ability and the effectiveness of the techniques and their performance.

The class training structure has changed very little. Starting with a warming exercise regime starting away from the heart the stretches and energises the necessary muscle groups. Then we use the anaerobic and aerobic exercises to further warm the athlete ready for more explosive actions. We next move onto basic free striking and kicking while resting students as the activity levels become more difficult. After a small rest period we move onto one of the following activities in alternating sequences; bag kicking, group demonstration, weapon arts, sparring drills, free sparring, break falling/ rolling, defence strategies and practical small bag blocking and self defence techniques with and without mats.

The general warm down exercises are conducted using a combination of sit ups, push ups, leg raising or tantein breathing.

Generally speaking, most martial art techniques are learnt during the colour belt syllabus, but better understood at the black belt level. Like any topic of learning, it is not until an individual teaches their knowledge that the individual start to fully understand their interpretation. Different techniques are perceived by different people in different ways. Some techniques are found to be ineffective; usually because they are being affected incorrectly. The black belt training is when the individual learns not only about the techniques, but learn more about themselves.

An important basic of teaching is not to perceive “favourite” students. This leads to an imbalance in the class development. Each student should be respected equally as human being, and the rank. Again, some individuals will excel at some techniques and battle with others. Here there is an opportunity to the instructor to use a stronger student of particular technique to demonstrate their ability to assist the other. However, the balance must be brought back when the roles are reversed on another technique. This builds class bonding and appeals to every ones sense of praise and recognition. It is the instructors’ job to maintain this balance with the group.

Another interesting factor is the human evolution within the class. The younger generation of students are generally physically softer. There life experience has been more comfortable than previous generations and this presents itself in terms of commitment and will power. On reflection, this is an evolutionary trend in society. As more technology is invented, the social life style of the human race becomes more demanding with fewer efforts.

The next evolutionary step in teaching has been video and internet communication. This had lead to students being able to learn over long distances with different results. As Hapkido is best taught hand to hand, the use of video can only used as a guide. Interpersonal training is also still a necessity. But a growing development in technology in video calling will be the next stage of long distance teaching/ learning. This method can be used to teach groups via live video connection to create a virtual class over the internet with direct interaction between the instructor and student/s.



5) Hapkido Evaluation Methods

The success of the class is judged by the Master at Grading examinations. As the Master visits all classes, he/ she can easily measure the comparisons and provide this feedback to the instructor. He/ she may also provide this feedback directly to the class in terms of class comparison and direct feedback on particular items of the grading performance in general. This in turn creates a positive environment of reinforcement to the group.

The examination is performed directly from the training syllabus. This caters for particular techniques to be performed for each belt/ dan. The syllabus is updated from time to time to represent technical developments that are adopted or enhanced. The techniques are also upgraded from time to time.

Each grading is measured by a numerical score. In colour belts, the scores are; < 70 = fail. 70 to 78 is a grade of poor through to good. 79 represents an excellent display. > 80 results in a double grading. In dan examinations the scores between 70 – 79 are the same. However scores greater than 79 are achievable. The highest score that I have personally witnessed is 85.

It is common place for the Master instructor to issue club certificates before international certification. Each club has a school name. Ours is Moohakkwan. Therefore dan certificates are issued under our club name. Further recognition can be achieved with the Korea Hapkido Federation but only under the recommendation of the Master of the school name. Students can attend the Korea Hapkido Federation for certification dan grading, however the actual grading syllabus differs to that of clubs.

There is also a minimum grading qualification time frame. During the colour belt syllabus, the general grading time period is 3 months. However students can apply for double grading under the recommendation of the instructor. However dan promotion time periods are strictly adhered to as follows;


1st dan             to         2nd dan            1 & 1/2 years minimum then

2nd dan            to         3rd dan            2 & 1/2 years minimum then

3rd dan            to         4th dan             3 & 1/2 years minimum then

4th dan             to         5th dan             4 & 1/2 years minimum then

5th dan             to         6th dan             5 & 1/2 years minimum then

6th dan             to         7th dan             6 & 1/2 years minimum then     

7th dan             to         8th dan             7 & 1/2 years minimum then

8th dan             to         9th dan             8 & 1/2 years minimum





Written by;


Andrew Sands

6th dan black belt with the Australian Hapkido Moohakkwan

6th dan black belt with the Korean Hapkido Federation (world body)

Secretary/ Treasurer, Australian Hapkido Federation Inc’

19 year teaching experience


5th dan black belt with the Australian Taekwondo Jidokwan

5th dan black belt with the Korea Taekwondo Kukkiwon (world body)

Secretary/ Treasurer, NSW Taekwondo Association

20 year teaching experience


Director- AJS Self Defence

Accredited Instructor with the Martial Arts Industry Association (

The AJS 6 Ladies 6 Week Self Defence Course is endorsed by MAIA

AJS Self Defence

PO Box 4149 Lalor Park, NSW Australia 2147
































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